It was the first government document of the United States of America. It was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in November 1777 and ratified by the states in 1781. The articles of Confederation contain thirteen articles and one conclusion. They were signed by forty-eight people from the thirteen states. Among the signatories were Samuel Adams, John Dickinson, Elbridge Gerry, John Hancock, Richard Henry Lee, Governor Morris, Robert Morris, Roger Sherman and John Witherspoon. When the details of Virginia`s plan were discussed, it became clear that it was not a simple revision of the articles of Confederation, but a bold plan for an entirely new type of government – a government with a much more powerful “national” legislature and, unlike the articles of confederation, with a powerful chief executive. It also became immediately clear that, as bold and innovative as the plan may have been, many delegates in the room had serious concerns about certain aspects. For nearly four months, delegates have been trying to clarify and resolve their differences. The most divisive issues – those concerning the distribution of representation in the national legislature, the powers and modalities of electing the chief executive, and the place of the institution of slavery in the new continental political body – would fundamentally change the form of the document, which would finally be published on 17 September. 1787. The delegates` commitment to the principles of equality as formulated in the Declaration of Independence is limited, even in the case of free white adult men. For example, most delegates supported the imposition of property qualifications on voters in their individual states. But nowhere are these limits more evident than in the debates about slavery.
By 1787, slavery in America was in decline, but it remained an important part of the social and economic fabric in five of the states represented by the Convention. In their quest for “compromise,” the delegates exacerbated the contradiction existing in their nation regarding the fundamental values of freedom and equality on which America had declared its independence. In fact, they enshrined the institution of slavery in their new constitution. Although States have remained sovereign and independent, no State has been allowed to impose restrictions on trade or freedom of movement on citizens of another State that have not been imposed on it. The articles also required each state to give “full confidence and credit” to the judicial affairs of the other. And free residents of each state should enjoy the “privileges and immunities of free citizens” of others. Cross-border movement should not be restricted. When the Congress of the Confederacy attempted to govern the ever-growing U.S. states, delegates discovered that the restrictions that resurrected the central government made them ineffective. When the government`s weaknesses became evident, especially after the Shays rebellion, some prominent political thinkers in the young union began calling for changes to the articles. Their hope was to create a stronger government. Initially, some states came together to solve their trade and economic problems.
However, when more states were interested in meeting to amend the articles, a meeting was held in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787. It became the Constitutional Convention. It was quickly agreed that the amendments would not work and that all the articles should be replaced.  On March 4, 1789, the government was replaced under the sections by the federal government under the Constitution.  The new Constitution provided for a much stronger federal government by creating a chief executive (the president), courts, and fiscal powers. . . .